Why it is prescribed (Indications) : This medication is a narcotic analgesic, prescribed for moderate to severe pain. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain.
When it is not to be taken (Contraindications): Contraindicated in patients with respiratory depression and hypersensitivity.
Pregnancy Category :
Category C : Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Dosage & When it is to be taken : PO- The starting dose is 2.5 mg to 10 mg every 8 to 12 hours.
How it should be taken : It comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth, with or without food.
Warnings and Precautions : Caution should be exercised in patients with lung or breathing problems, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), stomach problems, stomach pain, constipation, liver, kidney, thyroid or Addison disease, urinary obstruction, low blood volume, tumors, seizures, head injury, any allergy, who are taking other medications, elderly, children, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
It may cause drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, or lightheadedness, do not drive a car or operate machinery and get up slowly from bed while taking this medication.
Avoid alcohol consumption.
It may cause constipation; consult with your doctor to avoid this problem.
Monitor patient’s condition during treatment initiation, during conversion from one opioid to another, and during dose titration.
Side Effects : Most Common - Lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting and sweating.
Body as a Whole - Weakness, swelling and headache.
Heart - Abnormal heart rhythm, slow/fast heart rate, ECG abnormalities, flushing, heart failure, low blood pressure, palpitations, vein inflammation, QT interval prolongation and fainting.
Gastrointestinal - Abdominal pain, loss of appetite, constipation, dry mouth and tongue inflammation.
Metabolic - Weight gain.
Central Nervous System - Agitation, confusion, disorientation, emotion, anxiety, sleeplessness and seizures.
Respiratory - Lung swelling and respiratory depression.
Skin - Itching, hives and rash.
Eye and ENT - Hallucinations and visual disturbances.
Genitourinary - Absence of menstrual periods, reduced sexual activity and/or impotence and urinary retention or hesitancy.
Other Precautions : Avoid excess dosage.
Storage Conditions : Store it at room temperature (20° to 25°C), and in an airtight container.